Quality of Groundwater for Drinking Purpose in the Vicinity of an Open Drain of Udupi Municipal
Quality Of Groundwater For Drinking Purpose In The Vicinity Of An Open Drain Of Udupi Municipal civil project report Present work reports about the physico-chemical characteristics of groundwater collected from Udupi city, Karnataka, India. In order to evaluate the quality of groundwater in the study area, 35 open wells were selected from 35 wards of Udupi Municipal area and water samples from each open well were collected. Analysis is done for various parameters such as pH, Electrical Conductivity, Total Dissolved solids, Total Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Sodium, Ammonium, Potassium, Magnesium, Calcium, Fluoride, Chloride, Nitrate, Sulphate, Iron, Cobalt, Nickel, Cadmium, Lead, Chromium, Manganese and Copper. The obtained results were compared with the standards laid down by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Geochemical nature of water was determined using Piper’s diagram. Suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation purpose was interpreted.
Quality Of Groundwater For Drinking Purpose In The Vicinity Of An Open Drain Of Udupi Municipal civil project report Physico-chemical analysis of groundwater samples of Udupi Municipal area conducted using various analytical methods shows that the quality of groundwater does not show much variation and most of the samples are within permissible limit.
It can be seen from the Piper’s trilinear diagram that majority of the groundwater samples were sodium, potassium, bicarbonate and calcium rich in water. The diagram demonstrates shows the dominance of alkaline earths over alkali in 62.86% of samples and in all the samples, weak acidic anions exceed strong acidic anions. It can also be observed that 62.86% of samples belong to Ca2+ -Mg2+ – HCO3 type illustrating the presence of temporary hardness.